Pier Gallo, DDS, PhD(c)
The vertical increase of the bone crest with the use of allograft or xenograft mixed with autologous bone graft, covered by a non-absorbable high density polytetrafluoroethylene (d-PTFE) membrane, is well documented in the literature and has been shown to be effective in the treatment of vertical bone augmentation. In this retrospective cross-sectional study, 24 samples for histology were harvested from 16 nonrandomized partial edentulous patients undergoing vertical guided ridge augmentation (VGRA). Histology samples were analyzed according to the biomaterial used in vertical guided bone augmentation. Patient samples treated with a freeze-dried bone allograft mixed with autogenous bone in a 1:1 ratio were categorized as group A. Samples from patients treated with a xenograft bone mineral of porcine origin mixed with autogenous bone in a 1:1 ratio corresponded to group B. Histology samples were taken on the same day as membrane removal and implant placement. Thirty-three implants were placed in 16 regenerated vertical augmentations, 13 patients with vertical augmentation in posterior mandible and 3 patients with an anterior maxilla vertical augmentation procedure. Group A (allograft + autogenous) and group B (xenograft + autogenous) showed a percentage of vital mineralized tissue (VMT) area of 67.64±16.84 and 60.93±18.25, respectively. A significant difference between the two biomaterials was not observed. Both biomaterials proved to be excellent alternatives as using under-membrane bone filler in VGRA if used in combination with autogenous bone.
Given the limitations of this retrospective cross-sectional study, no significant difference was observed between the two biomaterials mixed with autologous graft in VGRA procedures. Both biomaterials could be an excellent alternative for bone filling in VGRA and allow the placement of dental implants if used in combination with autologous bone.
Journal of Oral Implantology
Vertical guided ridge augmentation histomorphometry
Titanium-reinforced nonresorbable membrane Freeze-dried bone allograft